martes, 11 de septiembre de 2012

martes, 12 de junio de 2012

Prefer and Would Rather

     You can use "prefer to (do)" or "prefer -ing" to say what you prefer in general:
• I don't like cities. I prefer to live in the country OR I prefer livingin the country.
Study the differences in structure after prefer. We say:
  • I prefer something to something else.
  • I prefer to do something rather than (do) something else.
  • I prefer doing something to doing something else.
•  I prefer this coat to the coat you were wearing yesterday.
•  I prefer driving to traveling by train.
but • I prefer to drive rather than travel by train.
•  Ann prefers to live in the country rather than (live) in a city.

Would prefer (I'd prefer...)

We use "would prefer" to say what somebody wants in a particular situation (not in general):
•  "Would you prefer tea or coffee" "Coffee, please."
We say "would prefer to do(not "doing"):
•  "Shall we go by train?" "Well, I'd prefer to go by car. (not "I'd prefer going")
•  I'd prefer to stay at home tonight rather than go to the cinema.

Would rather (I'd rather...)

Would rather (do) = would prefer (to do). After would rather we use the infinitive without to.
Compare:
•   "Shall we go by train?""I'd prefer to go by car."
"I'd rather go by car. (not to go)
  "Would you rather have tea or coffee" "Coffee, please."
The negative is "I'd rather not (do something)":
•  I'm tired. I'd rather not go out this evening, if you don't mind.
•  "Do you want to go out this evening" "I'd rather not."
Study the structure after would rather:
I'd ratherdo somethingthan (do)something else.
•  I'd rather stay at home tonight than go to the cinema.

I'd rather you did something

When you want somebody to do something, you can say "I'd rather you did something":
•  "Shall I stay here?" "I'd rather you came with us."
•  "Shall I tell them the news?" "No. I'd rather they didn't know."
•  "Shall I tell them or would you rather they didn't know?"
In this structure we use the past (came, did etc.), but the meaning is present or future, not past.
Compare:
•  I'd rather cook the dinner now.
but • I'd rather you cooked the dinner now. (not "I'd rather you cook")
The negative is "I'd rather you didn't...":
•  I'd rather you didn't tell anyone what I said.
• "Do you mind if I smoke?" "I'd rather you didn't."

domingo, 1 de abril de 2012

1. Rewrite the sentences using the modal verbs in brackets.
1. It’s possible that Jane will visit Switzerland next year. (could)
2. I’m thinking about taking Spanish lessons. (may)
3. I’m sure they’ll be home by now. (must)
4. James definitely isn’t eighteen yet! (can’t)
5. It’s possible the weather will be sunny tomorrow. (might)
6. I’m sure that Mrs Smith didn’t leave home. (can’t) Mrs Smith …
7. Perhaps she’s gone to stay with her mother. (might) She …
8. It’s possible that Mr Smith committed a crime. (may) Mr Smith …
9. I’m certain that he buried something in the garden. (must) He …
10. Perhaps he won the lottery. (could) He …
11. I’m sure he bought a new car. (must) He …
12. Perhaps Mr Smith murdered his wife. (might) Mr Smith …
13. I'm sure she's at home. (must) 14. I know that isn't Janet-She's in America. (can’t)
15. I'm sure she thinks I'm stupid. (must) 16. I bet I look silly in this coat. (must)
17. They're always buying new cars. I'm certain they have a lot of money. (must)
18. I'm sure he's not a teacher. He's too well dressed. (can’t)
19. You're an architect? I'm sure that's an interesting job. (must)
20. I'm sure you're not serious. I know you're joking. (must)
21. I'm sure he's got another woman. He keeps coming home late. (must)
22. This water is possibly dangerous. (could)
23. Politics is sometimes really boring. (can)

2. Rewrite the sentences using a modal verb.

1. It isn’t necessary for you to take a jacket.
2. I advise you to see a dentist.
3. You aren’t allowed to talk during the exam.
4. It’s forbidden to park here.
5. I advise you to study harder.
6. He is obliged to go to the police station twice a week.
7. Tom knows how to speak Spanish.
8. He had permission to go to the party.
9. It isn’t possible that that is our plane.
10. It isn’t necessary to take a thick coat.
11. I wish I had paid for half of the meal, but I didn’t.
12. It was wrong of Mary to tell Steve about us.
13. Perhaps Anita didn’t get the text message.
14. It’s possible that they went to the cinema.
15. It wasn’t a good idea to ask the other couple to come with us.
16. I am certain you haven’t seen John because he is on a trip.
       You…
17. It is possible that Jake is in his room.
       Jake…
18. Perhaps we will not see them at the weekend.
       We…
19. I don’t know if I will go to the concert.
       I…
20. They are certain that bringing up children is not easy.
       Bringing up children…
21. It is unnecessary for you to come.
       You…
22. I advise him to give up smoking.
       He…
23. Eating chewing-gum in the class in prohibited.
       Students…
24. There was an obligation to turn off the mobile phone.
      We…
25. I didn’t have the ability to cook when I was younger.
       I…



         KEY 

1.Rewrite the sentences using the modal verbs in brackets.
1. Jane could visit Switzerland next year.
2. I may take Spanish lessons.
3. They must be home by now.
4. James can’t be eighteen yet!
5. The weather might be sunny tomorrow.
6. Mrs Smith can’t have left home.
7. She might have gone to stay with her mother.
8. Mr Smith may have committed a crime.
9. He must have buried something in the garden.
10. He could have won the lottery.
11. He must have bought a new car.
12. Mr Smith might have murdered his wife.
13. She must be at home.
14. I know that it can’t be Jane-She's in America.
15. She thinks I must be stupid.
16. I must look silly in this coat.
17. They're always buying new cars. They must have a lot of money.
18. He can’t be a teacher. He's too well dressed.
19. You're an architect? It must be an interesting job.
20. I'm sure you're not serious. You must be joking.
21. He must have another woman. He keeps coming home late.
22. This water could be dangerous.
23. Politics can be really boring.

2. Rewrite the sentences using a modal verb. 

1. You needn’t / don’t have to take a jacket.
 2. You should see a dentist.
3. You must talk during the exam.
4. You mustn’t park here.
5. You should study harder.
6. He must go to the police station twice a week.
7. Tom can speak Spanish.
8. He could / was allowed to go to the party.
9. That can’t be our plane.
10. You needn’t / don’t have to take a thick coat.
11. I should have paid for half of the meal, but I didn’t.
12. Mary shouldn’t have told Steve about us.
13. Anita may not have got the text message.
14. They may have gone to the cinema.
15. You shouldn’t have asked the other couple to come with us.
16. You can’t have seen John because he is on a trip.
17. Jake may be in his room.
18. We may not see them at the weekend.
19. I may not go to the concert.
20. Bringing up children can’t be easy.
21. You needn’t / don’t have to come.
22. He should give up smoking.
23. Students mustn’t eat chewing-gum in the class.
24. We must turn off the mobile phone.
25. I couldn’t cook when I was younger.

jueves, 29 de marzo de 2012

REPHRASING FOR 2º BACHILLERATO WITH ANSWERS


REPHRASING FOR PAU EXAM
SOLUTIONS: REPHRASING FOR PAU EXAM
  1. She started drinking too much alcohol two years ago. (Verbal Tenses)
- She has been drinking too much alcohol for two years.
  1. I don’t have a computer so I can’t type the essay on English grammar. (Conditional Sentence)
- If I had a computer, I would be able to type the essay on English grammar.
  1. Despite having been vaccinated she caught the flu. (Contrast Connector)
- Although she had been vaccinated, she caught flu.
  1. “We will arrest them for illegal entry in the country”, the policeman said. (Reported Speech)
- The policeman said that they would arrest them for illegal entry in the country.
  1. The teacher glued the pieces of the broken toy. (Passive)
- The pieces of the broken toy were glued by the teacher.
  1. It is possible that I finish work earlier than usual today. (Modal verb)
- I may finish work earlier than usual today.
  1. This is the place. We last had coffee together here. (Relative Clauses)
- This is where we last had coffee together.
  1. I love German. Unfortunately, I can’t speak it fluently. (Wish)
- I wish I could speak German fluently.
  1. As he hadn’t behaved himself, his parents got angry with him. (Causal Connector)
- His parents got angry with him because he hadn’t behaved himself.
  1. Everybody must read the instructions first. (Passive)
- The instructions must be read first.
  1. He made an effort to speak in English. (Gerund/Infinitive)
- He tried to speak in English.
  1. I spent my holidays in France. (Question)
- Where did you spend your holidays?                                                                                            
  1. This is the man. His job is very dangerous. (Relative Clauses)
- This is the man whose job is very dangerous.
  1. The engineer has repaired my television. (Have sth. Done)
- I’ve had my television repaired (by the engineer)
  1. She gave up going to French lessons. (Gerund/ Infinitive)
- She stopped going to French lessons.
  1. I regretted having hit the dog on the head. (Wish)
- I wish I hadn’t hit the dog on the head.
  1. I’m not as good at English as you are. (Comparatives)
- You are better at English than me.
  1. The policeman knew where the thief was hidden. (Question)
- Who knew where the thief was hidden?                                                                                                
  1. If your friend doesn’t come before ten, he will miss the train. (Conditionals)
- Unless your friend comes before ten, he will miss the train.
  1. The children stayed at home because it was raining. (Causal Connector)
- As it was raining, the children stayed at home.
  1. “What time do the banks close today?” (Reported Speech)
- Tim asked me what time the banks closed that day.
  1. Sharon hasn’t eaten junk food since last May. (Gerund/Infinitive)
- Sharon stopped eating junk food last May.
  1. My kitchen is being redecorated at the moment. (Have sth. Done)
- I am having my kitchen redecorated at the moment.
  1. I am not sure that she is his girlfriend. (Modal Verb)
- She might be his girlfriend.
  1. Albert’s drawing isn’t as good as Gerard’s. (Comparatives)
- Gerard’s drawing is better than Albert’s drawing.
  1. “Why don’t we play computer games?” said Michael. (Reported Speech)
- Michael suggested playing computer games.
  1. She said: “Are you coming to the party on Friday?” (Reported Speech)
- She asked him if he was coming to the party on Friday.
  1. They came to live in New York two years ago. (Verbal Tenses)
- They have been living in New York for two years.
  1. Smoking is forbidden in hospitals. (Modal Verb)
- You mustn’t smoke in hospitals.
  1. Although the weather was horrible, we went skiing. (Contrast Connectors)
- In spite of the horrible weather, we went skiing.
  1. I would like to have more free time these days. (Wish)
- I wish I had more free time these days.
  1. I met that famous writer a year ago. (Verbal Tenses)
- It’s been a year since I met that famous writer.
  1. Wendy didn’t study for her test. Therefore, she failed. (Conditionals)
- If Wendy had studied for her test, she wouldn’t have failed.
  1. “Don’t speak so loud, please”, she said to the students. (Reported Speech)
- She ordered / begged / asked the students not to speak so loud.
  1. We won’t buy that house because we don’t have enough money. (Causal Connectors)
- As we don’t have enough money, we won’t buy that house.
  1. That man’s brother is my new English teacher. (Relative Clauses)
- That is the man whose brother is my new English teacher.
  1. Steve advised me to tell Paul about it. (Gerund/Infinitive)
- Steve suggested telling Paul about it.
  1. I didn’t make a note of it in my diary, so I forgot about it. (Conditional Clauses)
- If I had made a note of it in my diary, I wouldn’t have forgotten about it.
  1. She lost the race in spite of running well. (Contrast Clauses)
- Although she ran well, she lost the race.
  1. It’s possible that her boyfriend is coming to the wedding. (Modal Verbs)
- Her boyfriend may come to the wedding.
  1. Beth hasn’t smoked since last December. (Gerund/Infinitive)
- Beth stopped smoking last December.
  1. My new neighbours have got a baby. Her name is Wendy. (Relative Clauses)
- My new neighbours have got a baby whose name is Wendy.
  1. Although Orson was over seventy, he continued to cycle to work every day. (Contrast Connector)
- Despite being over seventy, Orson continued to cycle to work every day.
  1. I haven’t read a play by George Bernard Shaw for eight years. (Verbal Tenses)
- It is eight years since I read a play by George Bernard Shaw.
  1. “Perhaps it would be better to go out in the afternoon”, Sharon’s mother said. (Reported Speech)
- Sharon’s mother recommended going out in the afternoon.
  1. The fireman managed to rescue the child from the burning house. (Modal Verbs)
- The fireman was able to rescue the child from the burning house.
  1. The police don’t oblige the suspects to say anything. (Passive)
- The suspects aren’t obliged to say anything by the police.
  1. My grandfather is eighty-two years old. (Question)
- How old is your grandfather?                                                                                                   
  1. She hasn’t enjoyed herself so much for years. (Verbal Tenses)
- It is years since she enjoyed herself so much.
  1. I am going to the theatre tomorrow, and I’m really looking forward to it. (Modal Verbs)
- I’m really looking forward to going to the theatre tomorrow.
  1. She’s getting someone to mend the windows. (Have sth. Done)
- She’s having the windows mended.
  1. I thought it would be better than that. (Comparatives)
- It’s not as good as I thought it would be.
  1. Mary said to us “Don’t be late.” (Reported Speech)
- She told us not to be late.
  1. She made a lot of mistakes because she didn’t study hard for the exam. (Conditionals)
- If she had studied hard for the exam, she wouldn’t have made a lot of mistakes.
  1. Her jokes are not as good as his. (Comparatives)
- His jokes are better than hers.
  1. It is possible that we’ll be together soon. (Modal Verbs)
- We may be together soon.
  1. People speak English all over the world. (Passive)
- English is spoken all over the world.
  1. I am sorry I didn’t tell him everything. (Wish)
- I wish I had told him everything.
  1. Fiona is smiling in the picture. She is my boss. (Relative Clauses)
- Fiona, who is my boss, is smiling in the picture.
  1. Despite the fact that it was very hot, she was wearing her winter clothes. (Contrast Clauses)
- Although it was very hot, she was wearing her winter clothes.
  1. I was not invited and I am sorry about that.  (Gerund/Infinitive)
- I would like to have been invited.
  1. I am having my house painted now. (Passive)
- My house is being painted now.
  1. I’m sorry I haven’t got a car. (Wish)
- I wish I had got a car.
  1. The teacher said to me “Wait for me outside”. (Reported Speech)
- The teacher told me to wait for him outside.
  1. She needed a job, so she sent off an application form. (Causal Connector)
- She sent off an application form , because she needed a job.
  1. It takes me two hours to get there. (Question)
- How long does it take you to get there?                                                                          
  1. The last time she wrote a poem was two years ago. (Verbal Tenses)
- She hasn’t written a poem for two years.
  1. You must not smoke in here. (Modal Verb)
- Smoking is forbidden here.
  1. If the tickets don’t arrive, we won’t be able to go. (Conditional Clauses)
- Unless the tickets arrive, we won’t be able to go.
  1. Where are my keys? (Question)
I wonder where my keys are.
  1. The mechanic is going to repair her car next week. (Have sth. Done)
- She is going to have her car repaired next week (by the mechanic).
  1. What a pity I didn’t have time to see you last week. (Wish)
- I wish I had had time to see you last week.
  1. This story will shock you. (Passive)
- You will be shocked by this story.
  1. Will you post this letter for me, please? (Gerund/Infinitive)
- Do you mind posting this letter for me, please?
  1. If you don’t review your notes tonight, you won’t do well tomorrow. (Conditionals)
- Unless you review your notes tonight, you won’t do well tomorrow.
  1. “How much money have you put into the account?”  they asked. (Reported Speech)
- They asked me how much money I had put into the account.
  1. I’m sorry I can’t speak French perfectly.  (Wish)
- I wish I could speak French perfectly.
  1. The next plane leaves at 9.45 p.m.. (Question)
- What time does the next plane leave?                                                                                             
  1. You should post these letters. (Passive)
- These letters should be posted.
  1. Although she was ill, she visited other countries. (Contrast Connector)
- Despite being ill, she visited other countries.
  1. “I have never seen anything so beautiful”, he said. (Reported Speech)
- He said that he had never seen anything so beautiful.
  1. Mary was sorry she ate so many cakes. (Wish)
- Mary wished she hadn’t eaten so many cakes.
  1. I have failed all my exams at the university because I didn’t study enough. (Conditionals)
- If I had studied enough, I wouldn’t have failed all my exams at the university.
  1. I forgot to phone Lisa on her birthday. (Gerund/Infinitive)
- I didn’t remember
  1. Sheila is 1.55 m tall. Her brother is 1.70 m tall. (Comparatives)
- Sheila is less tall than her brother.
  1. Although it was cold, we went to the countryside. (Contrast Connector)
- In spite of being cold, we went to the countryside.
  1. The hairdresser cut my hair yesterday morning. (Have sth. Done)
- I had my hair cut yesterday morning.
  1. This is the man. His dog bit my brother in the park. (Relative Clauses)
- This is the man whose dog bit my brother in the park.
  1. I didn’t go to the gym yesterday because my foot hurt. (Conditionals)
- If my foot hadn’t hurt, I would have gone to the gym.
  1. The teacher said: “You have to hand your papers in at the end of this class”. (Reported Speech)
- The teacher said that we had to hand our papers in at the end of that class.
  1. If your boyfriend doesn’t arrive before eight, we will have to leave. (Conditionals)
- Unless your boyfriend arrives before eight, we will have to leave.
  1. The children couldn’t go out to the playground because it was raining. (Causal Connector)
- As it was raining, the children couldn’t go out to the playground.
  1. The last time we saw that movie was six months ago. (Verbal Tenses)
- We have not seen that movie for six months.
  1. Smoking is forbidden in most restaurants. (Modal  Verbs)
- You mustn’t smoke in most restaurants.
  1. The shop assistant didn’t give us the ticket. (Passive)
- We weren’t given the ticket by the shop assistant.
  1. Al swims faster than Peter. (Comparatives)
- Peter swims slower than Al. / Peter doesn’t swim as fast as Al.
  1. I saw Frank two months ago. (Verbal Tenses)
- I haven’t seen Frank for two months.
  1. He forgot to phone his wife yesterday. (Gerund/Infinitive)
- He didn’t remember phoning his wife yesterday.
  1. They are servicing my new car next week. (Have sth. Done)
- I am having my new car served next week.
  1. If we don’t meet this month, it will be too late. (Conditionals)
- Unless we meet this month, it will be too late.
  1. The trainer said: “Molly, come back to the team!” (Reported Speech)
- The trainer told her to come back to the team.
  1. Ben drives 200 miles every day. (Question)
-    Who drives 200 miles every day?                                                                                        
  1. “Where did the robbery take place?” he asked. (Reported Speech)
- He asked where the robbery took place.
  1. Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928. (Passive)
- Penicillin was discovered in 1928 by Fleming.
  1. You can’t have a bicycle. (Modal Verbs)
- You are not allowed to have a bicycle.
  1. I don’t know her address, so I can’t write to her. (Conditionals)
- If I knew her address, I would be able to write to her / I could write to her.
  1. A new magazine is on the hall table.
- There is a new magazine on the hall table.
  1. John lives next door. (Question)
-  Who lives next door?                                                                              
  1. “Where are your brothers, Sheila?” (Reported Speech)
- She asked Sheila where her brothers were.
  1. Perhaps they only open the museum in the morning. (Modal Verb)
- They may only open the museum in the morning.
  1. The meat was better than the fish. (Comparatives)
- The fish was worse than the meat. / The fish wasn’t as good as the meat.
  1. You can make green paint by mixing blue and yellow. (Passive)
- Green paint can be made by mixing blue and yellow.
  1. I have been playing the piano for twenty years. (Verbal Tenses)
- I started playing the piano twenty years ago.
  1. I have English classes three times a week. (Question)
-  How often do you have English classes?                                                                                             
  1. Sharon is going to marry a man. He is Eric’s brother. (Relative Clauses)
- The man who Sharon is going to marry to is Eric’s brother.
  1. “Why don’t we have dinner out tonight?” said Martin. (Reported Speech)
- Martin suggested having dinner out that night.
  1. I didn’t open the door because I didn’t know it was you. (Conditionals)
- If I had known it was you, I would have opened the door.
  1. If you want my advice, go to the dentist! (Modal Verbs)
- You should go to the dentist.
  1. I forgot to post the letter. (Gerund/Infinitive)
- I didn’t remember posting the letter.
  1. They say this tree is over 400 years old. (Passive)
- This tree is said to be over 400 years old.
  1. The man said to us: “Keep off the grass!” (Reported Speech)
- The man ordered us to keep off the grass.
  1. They didn’t tell me the secret. (Passive)
- I wasn’t told the secret.
  1. I’m sure they are at home. The lights are on. (Modals)
- They must be at home because the lights are on.
  1. I didn’t invite Beth. I had forgotten her telephone number. (Conditionals)
- If I hadn’t forgotten Beth’s telephone number, I would have invited her.
  1. Shakespeare was a famous writer. He wrote beautiful sonnets. (Relative Clauses)
- Shakespeare, who was a famous writer, wrote beautiful sonnets.
  1. Someone knocked at the door. The dog woke up. (Connector)
- The dog woke up because/ when someone knocked at the door.
  1. It’s such a pity you can’t come along! (Wish)
- I wish you could come along.
  1. Bananas are more expensive than apples. (Comparatives)
- Apples are cheaper than bananas. / Apples aren’t as expensive as bananas.
  1. In spite of her beauty, she doesn’t have a boyfriend. (Contrast connector)
- Although she is (very) beautiful, she doesn’t have a boyfriend.
  1. I last had flu five years ago. (Verbal tenses)
- I haven’t had flu for five years.
  1. I’m sure she’s telling lies. (Modal Verbs)
- She must be telling lies.
  1. The teenager in red has broken the window. (Passive)
- The window has been broken by the teenager in red.
  1. In my opinion, taking some exercise would be good for you. (Modals)
- You should take some exercise.
  1. The teacher didn’t tell us the answer. (Passive)
- We weren’t told the answer by the teacher.
  1. I last visited London fifteen years ago. (Verbal tenses)
- I haven’t visited London for fifteen years.
  1. She asked me: “What time does your party start?” (Reported speech)
- She asked me what time my party started.
  1. Will you close the door when you leave, please? (Gerund/ Infinitive)
- Do you mind closing the door when you leave?
  1. We bought our tickets on the Web because it was much cheaper. (Causal connector)
- Since it was much cheaper, we bought our tickets on the Web.
  1. Albert is coming back from hospital tomorrow. He has just broken his ankle. (Relative Clauses)
- Albert, who has just broken his ankle, is coming back from hospital tomorrow.
  1. “How much is this T-shirt?”, she asked. (Reported Speech)
- She asked how much that T-shirt was.
  1. If you want my advice, don’t eat so many cakes! (Modals)
- You shouldn’t eat so many cakes.
  1. I’m sorry I didn’t work hard enough last year. (Wish)
- I wish I had worked hard enough last year.
  1. Although he was exhausted, he managed to finish reading the novel. (Contrast connector)
- Despite being exhausted, he managed to finish reading the novel.
  1. Gerard plays tennis twice a week. (Question)
- How often does Gerard play tennis?                                                                                    
  1. That woman’s husband is my boss. (Relative Clauses)
- That is the woman whose husband is my boss.
  1. They have found the stolen money. (Passive)
- The stolen money has been found.
  1. She divorced him because he was so terrible to her. (Conditionals)
- If he hadn’t been so terrible to her, she wouldn’t have divorced him.
  1. “I have read this book”, she said. (Reported Speech)
- She said that she had read that book.
  1. I am sure she knows you are here. (Modals)
- She must know you are here.
  1. I felt really tired so I stayed at home. (Causal connector)
- I stayed at home because I felt really tired.
  1. People consider that he is an expert on cricket. (Passive)
- He is considered to be an expert on cricket.
  1. Please don’t shoot. (Gerund / Infinitive)
- He begged us not to shoot.
  1. Learning English is not easy. (Gerund / Infinitive)
- It is not easy to learn English.
  1. We didn’t visit the museum because we hadn’t time. (Conditionals)
- If we had had time, we would have visited the museum.
  1. I’m sorry we accepted the invitation. (Wish)
- I wish we hadn’t accepted the invitation.
  1. Although she was poor, she was happy. (Contrast connector)
- In spite of being poor, she was happy.
  1. They didn’t pay for the ring. (Relative clauses)
- This is the ring which they didn’t pay for.
  1. Although the weather was awful, they had a great time. (Contrast connector)
- In spite of the awful weather, they had a great time.
  1. They have given us a Roald Dahl novel. (Passive)
- We have been given a Roald Dahl novel.
  1. She hasn’t phoned her mother for two months. (Verbal tenses)
- It’s two months since she last phoned her mother.
  1. They don’t allow smoking in this room. (Modals)
- You mustn’t smoke in this room.
  1. I’m sorry I didn’t go shopping with you. (Wish)
- I wish I had gone shopping with you.
  1. London will fascinate you. (Passive)
- You will be fascinated by London.
  1. I saw a man later. He was the president of the European Community. (Relative clauses)
- The man, who(m) I saw later, was the president of the European Community.
  1. Germany is richer than India. (Comparatives)
- India is poorer than Germany. / India is not as rich as Germany.
  1. “I don’t know”, he told them. (Reported speech)
- He told them that he didn’t know.
  1. She can’t come to the party because she is so busy. (Conditionals)
- If she wasn’t so busy, she could come to the party.
  1. Maybe your friend will call you on your birthday. (Modals)
- Your friend may call you on your birthday.
  1. “Where is the nearest cinema, please?” (Indirect question)
- Could you tell me where the nearest cinema is.
  1. I haven’t seen your wife for a long time. (Verbal tenses)
- It’s a long time since I last saw your wife.
  1. He didn’t revise for the test so he failed. (Conditionals)
- If he had revised for the test, he wouldn’t have failed.
  1. The ophthalmologist tests her eyes every year. (Have sth. Done)
- She has her eyes tested every year by the ophthalmologist.
  1. The Da Vinci Code is a best-seller. It was written by Dan Brown. (Relative clauses)
- The Da Vinci Code, which was written by Dan Brown, is a best-seller.
  1. Mary goes swimming twice a week. (Question)
- Who goes swimming twice a week?                                                                              
  1. I am sorry I didn’t remember your birthday. (Wish)
- I wish I had remembered your birthday.
  1. He told us: “Don’t make so much noise!” (Reported speech)
- He ordered us not to make so much noise.
  1. As it was Friday, the children stayed up late. (Causal connector)
- The children stayed up late because it was Friday.
  1. I have never read such an interesting book. (Verbal tenses / Superlative)
- This is the first time I have read such an interesting book. / This is the most interesting book I’ve ever read.
  1. If you don’t hurry up, you won’t get tickets for the concert. (Conditionals)
- Unless you hurry up, you won’t get tickets for the concert.
  1. I have to wear a uniform whenever I work in front of the customers. (Question)
- When do you have to wear a uniform?                                                                                                                             
  1. The film is not as good as the novel. (Comparatives)
- The novel is better than the film.
  1. The hairdresser cut my hair last week. (have sth. Done)
- I had my hair cut last week.
  1. “Let’s go to the cinema on Tuesday”, said Mary. (Reported speech)
- Mary suggested going to the cinema on Tuesday.
  1. What a pity the weather was so bad last weekend. (Wish)
- I wish the weather hadn’t been so bad last weekend.
  1. I haven’t seen a good film for ages. (Verbal tenses)
- It’s ages since I last saw a good film.
  1. John bought a new Rolls Royce. (Question)
- What did John buy?                                                                                
  1. I visited a village yesterday but I did not like it. (Relative clauses)
- I visited a village yesterday which I did not like.
  1. He knows how to play golf. (Modals)
- He can play golf.
  1. It’s ages since I last visited Russia. (Verbal tenses)
- I haven’t visited Russia for ages.
  1. You won’t understand the problem if you don’t listen carefully. (Conditionals)
- Unless you listen carefully, you won’t understand the problem.
  1. Someone will cut your hair tomorrow. (Have sth. Done)
- You will have your hair cut tomorrow.
  1. He visits his parents every Sunday. (Question)
- How often does he visit his parents?                                                                             
  1. “Can I go to the disco?”, Tim asked his mother. (Reported speech)
- Tim asked his mother if he could go to the disco.
  1. Despite the fact that the questions were difficult, she got a high mark in her exam. (Contrast con)
- Although the questions were difficult, she got a high mark in her exam.
  1. It’s not necessary for you to make your bed. (Modals)
- You don’t have to make your bed. / You needn’t make your bed.
  1. They will tell us the news tomorrow night. (Passive)
- We will be told the news tomorrow night.
  1. I don’t earn much money. It’s a pity I can’t buy a new car. (Conditionals)
- If I earned much money, I could buy a new car.
  1. No other fictional secret agent is as famous as James Bond. (Superlative)
- James Bond Is the most famous fictional secret agent.